It says in your ALSA information that pulseaudio is installed but not running.
Check the documentation on www.pulseaudio.org
and pay extra attention to "First Steps" and "The Perfect Setup".
Also keep a terminal with the pulseadio man page next to you while reading information since the web documentation refers to some options without explaining them.
I don't exactly know how to read the ALSA information but it does look like you have every channel put to 0.
Check your alsamixer and also man alsamixer if it's new to you.
---------- Post added at 07:22 PM ---------- Previous post was at 05:56 PM ----------
You should also pay a visit to the hardware tab in the pulseuadio volume control (pavucontrol).
Maybe it could be as simple as another device is set as the output device.